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Clinical Approach to the Canine Red Eye

The eye should be re-evaluated within the first 24 to 48 hours following treatment. If secondary conditions develop as a result of the uveitis , the prognosis is guarded to poor . The prognosis also becomes guarded in cases where there is no improvement of the clinical signs, such as in animals that develop bone marrow aplasia. Uveitis is a common disease in dogs with a multitude of causes, one of them being ehrlichiosis.

Corneal blood staining occurs more readily in the presence of IOP that is greater than 25 mm Hg and has persisted for at least 6 days in the setting of blood clot apposition to the corneal endothelium. If the underlying reason is a congenital abnormality that can be corrected with surgery, the prognosis is excellent. Similarly, if a tumor causing blepharitis is surgically removed, chances for a full recovery are good. If the blepharitis is caused by allergens, it can be controlled but often not “cured,” in that your dog may have flare-ups of blepharitis when her allergies are not under control.

If the corneal endothelial cells are already compromised as a result of the trauma itself or pre-existing disease, the risk of staining with only marginal pressure elevation is even greater. Studied 137 patients with hyphema prospectively and determined that optic atrophy tended to occur with IOPs at or greater than 35 mm Hg with durations varying from 5–14 days. Optic atrophy as a direct can you use denture cleaner on real teeth result of the trauma itself may be a confounding factor in such studies. If no specific cause is found, additional blood work may be required to find evidence of systemic disease. The eye is comprised of many different types of tissue, which makes it susceptible to a wide variety of diseases, but also allows it to provide important clues about what is going on inside the body.

Even the larger hypodermic needles run the risk of becoming plugged. This technique is not without significant risk and is a procedure of last resort. A hyphema is usually caused by trauma to the eye and is accompanied by an increase in intraocular pressure . However, it may appear without warning in children who have other medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia or hemophilia.

Because most hyphemas happen because of sports injuries, it is important to wear protective eyewear. Sports injuries, especially with small balls like racquetballs, can cause serious eye problems. Besides hyphema, these injuries can cause cataracts,retinal detachments andglaucoma and lead to blindness. Atrophy of the iris is common in older dogs and may involve the pupillary margin or the stroma.

Most people recover from a hyphema with only at-home treatment in a few days. Five to 7.2% of hyphema patients require surgical evacuation of the blood clot. Laser trabeculoplasty and filtering surgery have no role in the early management of IOP elevation in traumatic hyphema. Aminocaproic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that stabilizes the clot and prevents secondary hemorrhages. These antifibrinolytic agents reduce clot degradation from traumatized blood vessels by inhibiting the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the protein responsible for clot breakdown. All these complications are more common when secondary bleeding occurs, usually 48–72 hours after the injury.

If your dog is found to have high blood pressure, beta blockers or ACE inhibitors may be prescribed. The veterinarian will also want to look into the cause of the hypertension. Treatment usually includes antibiotic drops, topical atropine, and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs . If there is an underlying cause of the ulceration, such as Dry Eye, this will need to be treated as well. Medications presented in this section are intended to provide general information about possible treatment. The treatment for a particular condition may evolve as medical advances are made; therefore, the medications should not be considered as all inclusive.

Blunt force head trauma and penetrating eye wounds are some of the most common veterinary emergencies, typically caused by vehicular accidents and animal fights. These patients may present with severe clinical signs such as skull fractures or inappropriate mentation or more inconspicuous clinical signs, such as hyphema. Protection by the bony orbit and soft tissues surrounding the eye reduces the chance of hyphema, although trauma directly in the area of the orbit or soft tissues may result in damage to the globe and uveal tissues4, 5, 6 . A study investigated traumatic ocular proptosis in 84 dogs and cats and included patients suffering from dog bites, vehicular accidents, animal fights, and unknown trauma. Cyclopegics and mydriatics, such as atropine sulfate at 1%, have been recommended in cases of anterior uveitis in order to prevent the formation of synechia and to reduce the ciliary spasms leading to local pain relief. However, one should be very careful because of the possibility of compromising the iridocorneal angle, causing obstruction, since mydriasis can promote increase of intraocular pressure, leading to glaucoma.

Chavkin M.J., Lappin M.R., Powell C.C., Roberts S.M., Parshall C.J., Reif J.S. Seroepidemiologic and clinical observations of 93 cases of uveitis in cats. Ghazi N.G., Green W.R. Pathology and pathogenesis of retinal detachment. Frank J.R., Breitschwerdt E.B. A retrospective study of ehrlichiosis in 62 dogs from North Carolina and Virginia. Schultz R.M., Johnson E.G., Wisner E.R., Brown N.A., Byrne B.A., Sykes J.E. Clinicopathologic and diagnostic imaging characteristics of systemic aspergillosis in 30 dogs. Stenner V.J., Mackay B., King V.R. Protothecosis in 17 Australian dogs and a review of the canine literature. Zemann B.I., Moore A.S., Rand W.M. A combination chemotherapy protocol (VELCAP-L) for dogs with lymphoma.