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A Traffic Cluster Entropy Based Approach to Distinguish DDoS Attacks from Flash Event Using DETER Testbed

In 2013, following a sprawling investigation, the United States charged four Russians and a Ukrainian man with a string of online break-ins at Nasdaq and other companies dating back to 2005. Carrefour, 7-Eleven, Heartland Payment Systems, and JC Penney were among their other targets, together losing $300 million as a result of the scheme. Breaching Heartland exposed more than 100 million payment cards, ultimately costing the firm $12 million in fines and fees. The stolen data was taken over the course of several weeks and included personal information, such as social security numbers. Anthem ended up settling a lawsuit relating to the data loss for $115 million.

Two financial firms were among the various U.S. targets of a hacking group operating under the guise of the Mabna Institute, which used password spraying to access information. The actors are accused by the United States of stealing 31 terabytes of academic and commercial information in a campaign dating as far back as 2013. Nine Iranians have been charged by the United States, which claims the group acts on behalf of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and has imposed sanctions on numerous individuals and companies in the country as a result. In March 2018, two Venezuelan men were arrested for jackpotting, where they installed malicious software or hardware on ATMs to force the machines to dispense huge volumes of cash on demand. From February to March, the duo stole $125,000 from four ATMs in Indiana, Kentucky, Wisconsin, and most recently Michigan, where they were apprehended. The pair were sentenced to federal prison in November 2018 for conspiracy to commit bank robbery.

In August 2019, the UNSC Panel of Experts indicated DPRK-affiliated actors were behind the attack. In May 2018, Banco de Chile suffered a $10 million theft after the attackers used destructive software as cover for a fraudulent SWIFT transfer. The bank’s 9,000 workstations and 500 servers failed on May 24 as the KillMBR wiper tool rendered them unable to boot up, adding it to the growing ranks of Latin American banks suffering cyber attacks.

A Fuze card is a data storage device that looks like a bank card, but can hold account data for up to thirty cards. Using smartcard technology can help criminals avoid raising suspicions at payment points or if stopped by authorities, as it reduces the need for them to carry large numbers of counterfeit cards on their person. In December, hackers infiltrated Chile’s ATM interbank network, Redbanc, after tricking an employee into downloading a malicious program during a fake job interview over Skype. On May 31, 2019, the Silence Group stole $3 million from Bangladesh’s Dutch Bangla Bank via ATM cash outs. Three other undisclosed financial institutions in India, Sri Lanka, and Kyrgyzstan were also attacked in the same timeframe. Until recently, Silence had focused on Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

On the other hand, the referral is supposed to be encrypted as it has the ability to reveal the web browsing history and information that belonged to the user that may exist in these headers . Dolnak addresses the problem highlighted by Fielding and Reschke where they suggested a referrer header policy that can control information indicated by the referrer to reduce the risk of information leakage. However, the proposed solution does not curb HTTP referrer manipulation created by HTTP DDoS attacks. The request headers adopted by HTTP DDoS are categorized as session flooding and request flooding which are capable of mimicking a genuine user request . Aside from that, the attack has the same syntax and is delivered via multiple HTTP requests in different HTTP formats .

A content type is another header that appears in a request which indicates the extension of the HTTP Uniform Resource Identifier header field . However, the content-type is also vulnerable to be tampered as it appears inconsistently in factorial 80m tiger global the normal web browsing and can be declared manually . Manually declaring content-type indicates that the header can be spoofed, which provides advantages to the attacker to emulate this header that resembles an authentic request.

UK-based Metro Bank became the first major bank to suffer from a new type of cyber intrusion that intercepts text messages with two-factor authentication codes used to verify various customer transactions. The attackers exploited flaws in the Signaling System 7 protocol, which is used by telecommunications companies to route text messages around the world. A spokesperson for the bank stated that only a small number of those defrauded were Metro Bank customers. On May 25, 2019, attackers attempted to steal from Upbit, a South Korean cryptocurrency exchange, but were thwarted by East Security, a security firm. In August 2019, the UN Security Council Panel of Experts indicated DPRK-affiliated actors were behind the attempted theft.

This is evidently different from the statistical result of super large attacks. IoT devices involved in small attacks were 19.5 percentage points more than those in super large attacks. 56% of attacks based on vulnerabilities in servers would cause leak of critical information and most exploitable vulnerabilities were found in legacy servers.